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大同與小康

&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <strong><span style="font-size: 14pt"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">〈大同與小康〉補充講義&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span></span></strong>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;<br />
<strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">一、寫作背景</span></span></span></strong><br />
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium"> &nbsp; 春秋時代,是歷史學家所稱的亂世,據司馬遷所述,在那個時代裡,「弒君三十六,亡國五十二。」至於諸侯奔走,不能保有其國者,則不可勝數,各國政治因禮教崩壞而陷入空前的混亂。因此,孔子感嘆禮教崩壞的言論,在論語之中亦有所見。</span></span></span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium">&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; <span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">如:齊景公問政於孔子,孔子對曰:「君君;臣臣;父父;子子。」即是針對齊國國政而發。當時,齊國則由陳氏執政,陳僖子施惠於民,培養自己的勢力,對齊君構成威脅,齊景公雖知陳氏的企圖,但無法制止,因此向孔子問政。</span></span></span><br />
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">  此外,孔子也曾說:「八佾舞於庭。是可忍也,孰不可忍也?」「八佾」是以前天子觀賞之舞,天子在行祭典時所使用的。連魯國國王都不敢使用,而季康子只是一名大臣,卻在自己家中行使八佾舞,這是僭越身分,不分長幼,輕視天子的,因此孔子才會認為如果這種事都可以忍受,還有什麼壞事不能忍受?還有什麼事不敢做?由此可以看見孔子不僅對禮教崩壞的痛心,同時也對這樣的情況提出嚴厲的抨擊。</span></span></span><br />
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">  正因為當時的禮教崩壞,才引出孔子對於古代政治的嚮往,而暢發他對治國平天下的議論,我們從《論語‧述而》中:「子曰:『甚矣,吾衰也!久矣,吾不復夢見周公!』」也看見孔子對於上古聖君賢相治理國家的嚮往。</span></span></span><br />
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">  本文主要記載孔子以五帝之治為「大同」,以三代之治為「小康」;表面似只論述「大同」與「小康」之區別,但主要是說大同社會已經隱沒,只給人一些憧憬。而在「天下為家」的「小康」社會中,須效法禹、湯、文、武、成王、周公之所為,謹慎地執行以禮義為紀綱的制度,才可使天下免於禍殃。這顯然是自孔子以來的儒家政治思想的論點。</span></span></span><br />
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<span style="font-size: medium"><strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">二、作者介紹</span></span></strong></span><strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">(略)</span></span></strong><br />
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<strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">三、國學常識</span></span></span></strong><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">(</span></span></strong></span><strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">一</span></span></strong><strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">)</span></span></strong><strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">經書沿革</span></span></strong><br />
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<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">時&nbsp; 代</span></span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">經&nbsp; 書</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">內容</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">先</span></span></span>&nbsp; <span style="font-family: 標楷體">秦</span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">六 經</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">詩、書、易、儀禮、樂、春秋</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">西&nbsp; 漢</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">五 經</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">詩、書、易、(1. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span>)、春秋(因為樂,有名無實體)</span><br />
<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">※東漢‧蔡邕「熹平石經」並刻三禮</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">南朝劉宋</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">十 經</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">詩、書、易、儀禮、禮記、周禮(後三者合稱三禮)</span></span><br />
<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">春秋左氏傳、公羊傳、穀梁傳(合為三傳)</span></span><br />
<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">論語並孝經</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">唐&nbsp; 代</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">十二經</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">十經中論語、孝經分開,加上爾雅(唐文宗開成石經)</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">南宋光宗淳熙年間</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">十三經</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">六經:詩、書、易、儀禮、周禮、春秋</span></span><br />
<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">三傳:左氏、公羊、穀梁(春秋經合於三傳中)</span></span><br />
<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">四記:禮記、論語、孝經、爾雅</span></span><br />
<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">一子:(2. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span>)</span><br />
<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">(即「開成石經」十二部加上孟子一書)</span></span></td>
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<strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">(二)集體創作之文學作品</span></span></span></strong><br />
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">書&nbsp; 名</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">年代</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">編撰者</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">編撰說明</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">內&nbsp; 容</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">課文取材</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">詩&nbsp; 經</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">周</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">孔子刪編成定本</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">非一時一地一人之作,孔子以前,亦不只三百多篇。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">十五國風、二雅、三頌</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">小雅‧蓼莪</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">1.</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">東周</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">1.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">西漢‧劉向整理定名</span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">2.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">北宋‧曾鞏重編</span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">非一時一地一人之作,漢代以前已成書。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">為國別史,寫十二國策士游說諸侯之事。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">戰國策‧齊策‧馮諼客孟嘗君</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">禮&nbsp; 記</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">周朝</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">1.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">孔門後學所記</span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">2.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">戴聖編纂成書</span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">孔門後學所記,戴聖取四十九篇編纂,東漢末年盛行。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">大多是有關於禮的單篇文章</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">禮記‧檀弓選</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">2. </span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">周秦</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">秦相呂不韋集門下客共同編寫</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">為統一學術思想,統一後王朝政治藍圖</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">含十二紀、八覽、六論,以儒、道思想為主,《漢書‧藝文志》列雜家。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">呂氏春秋‧察今</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">3. </span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">南朝宋</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">劉義慶集門下客共同撰寫而成</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">義慶性好文學,喜召募文士,編集圖書</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">為東漢到魏晉間名士的軼聞瑣事</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">世說新語選</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">資治通鑑</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">北宋</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">司馬光主撰,范祖禹、劉攽(ㄅㄧㄣ)、劉恕助編</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">為宋朝皇帝治理國事之借鏡</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">所收史事上起戰國下迄五代,為編年通史</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">訓儉示康</span></span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">(</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">選自司馬文正公集)</span></td>
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<strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">(三)禮記介紹</span></span></span></strong><br />
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">作 者</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">班固在《漢書‧藝文志‧六藝略》自注:「七十子後學所記。」可見應出自孔子弟子及後學之手。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">創 作     源 始</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">古人閱讀《儀禮》時,悟出的道理附記在《儀禮》中;久之,空間被記滿,另取簡片記載。其後,內容脫離儀禮羈限,廣泛討論許多與禮相關的事宜。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">正&nbsp; 名</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">因附於(1. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span>)後,故稱為《禮記》。</span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">篇 章</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">原為一百三十一篇,經漢‧戴德選取八十五篇,為大戴禮記;戴聖選取四十九篇,為小戴禮記。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">內&nbsp; 容</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">1.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">儒家禮治主義,人格教育之典籍。為古代生活大全,禮學叢書。</span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">2.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">其中(</span>2.&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;)、(3. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;)兩篇已獨立為四書之一。<br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">3.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">其中「禮運大同」篇闡述儒家「天下為公」的政治理想</span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">注&nbsp; 疏</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">1.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">漢‧鄭玄注(鄭玄有「經神」之稱,平今古經文之爭)。</span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">2.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">唐‧孔穎達正義。</span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">其&nbsp; 他</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">漢初所稱「五經」中的「禮」是指《儀禮》;「三禮」並入「十三經」之一,鄭玄均為之作注。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">周&nbsp; 禮</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">原名《周官》,是理想中的官制,為中國最早一部職官治事的政典,後〈冬官〉亡佚,以(4.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span>)代替。為古文經。</span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">禮&nbsp; 記</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">解釋禮儀程序之緣由,本附於儀禮之後。為今文經。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">儀&nbsp; 禮</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">記載周、秦時許多禮儀的程序,在漢只稱作「禮」,為今文經。</span></span></td>
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<strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">(四)三禮比較</span></span></span></strong><br />
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">書名</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">作 者</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">篇 數</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">內 容</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">性 質</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">注 釋</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">別 稱</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">周禮</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">相傳周公所作</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">1.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">今文:六篇四十二卷</span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">2.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">古文:七篇</span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">計分天、地、春、夏、秋、冬六官,記載政治制度。其中,〈冬官〉已佚,以〈考工記〉代之。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">記載古代理想官制</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">漢‧鄭玄注</span></span><br />
<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">唐‧賈公彥疏</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">漢稱</span></span><br />
<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">「周官」</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">儀禮</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">古文家:周公</span></span><br />
<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">今文家:孔子</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">1.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">古文佚</span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">2.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">今文:十七篇五十卷</span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">記存古代禮儀規範</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">記載周代貴族各種禮儀細節。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">漢‧鄭玄注</span></span><br />
<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">唐‧賈公彥疏</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">漢稱「禮」</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">禮記</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">孔子弟子及其後學(戴聖編)</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">今文:四十九篇。六篇專論,另大別為十類</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">哲理、政治、禮樂、器物、生活儀節。</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">《儀禮》的補充資料,或闡述,或發揮</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">漢‧鄭玄注</span></span><br />
<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">唐‧孔穎達正義</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">漢稱「記」</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">其他</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">1.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">在漢代,〈禮記〉本不是經,而是附在《儀禮》後面的補充資料。</span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">2.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">〈大學〉、〈中庸〉乃是《禮記》中二篇。</span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">3.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">中國最早一部職官政典是(</span>1.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;)。<br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">4.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">漢代立五經博士,其「禮」指(2.&nbsp;&nbsp; &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</span>)。<br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">5.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">孔穎達注五經,其「禮」指(</span>3. &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;)。</td>
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<strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">四、課文深究</span></span></span></strong><br />
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">主旨</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">本文為論說文,乃孔子論述自己的政治理想。</span></span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">筆法</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">1.</span></span></span><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">深刻刻劃了(孔子)的形象</span></span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">2.</span></span></span><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">以(對比)、(排比)呈現大同與小康之治。</span></span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">3.</span></span></span><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">筆法(精簡),加強文勢:如:「以正君臣&hellip;&hellip;,以功為己。」句中「以」字都是介詞,其下省略賓語「之」(指「禮義」)。以此筆法,可見其精鍊處,亦顯現出文勢。  </span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">段落</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">1.</span></span></strong></span><strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">首段:以(孔子)之嘆為起始,為文章背景定調</span></span></strong><br />
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">  文章一開始敘述引發孔子言論的原因,因見魯國蜡祭之禮徒具儀式,而不完備,因此心有所感而生嘆息。言偃問:「君子何嘆?」「君子」一詞正寫出孔子在弟子心目中人格的偉大,而也藉著言偃這問句引出孔子的回答。</span></span></span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">2.</span></span></strong></span><strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">次段論述大同之治,擘畫儒家政治理想</span></span></strong><br />
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">  為孔子敘述古書所載五帝及三代政治的狀況,實際上是孔子假借五帝、三代以立言,論述一己的政治理想&mdash;</span>大同與小康之治,而以「大同之治」為其最高理想。</span></span><br />
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<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">最終目標為「天下為公」。</span></span></span></li>
<li style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; text-align: justify">
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">在政治層面:用人必須「選賢與能」,處世必須「講信修睦」,包括個人與國家都應講求信用,敦修和睦,始能形成以下的社會狀況。</span></span></span></li>
<li style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; text-align: justify">
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">社會層面:必須由己擴及於人,故「不獨親其親,不獨子其子」。在制度上,必須使老年人各得安享天年,壯年人各能貢獻才力,兒童都得到良好的教育。在社會福利上,必須使弱勢族群都得到照顧供養,並以「男有分,女有歸」二句,作為大同社會的終極現象。</span></span></span></li>
<li style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; text-align: justify">
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">經濟層面:利益共享,全國的財富平均分配,達到均富的目的;人人都要為社會貢獻勞力,也就是要達到均勞的目的。以上所敘都是大同政治的情</span></span></span></li>
<li style="text-justify: inter-ideograph; text-align: justify">
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">結果:人人都以竭誠相待,所以「謀閉而不興」;人人均富,無貧富懸殊,人人均勞,無勞逸不均的現象,自然「盜竊亂賊而不作」。無詐謀,無盜賊,故無需關閉外戶防備。</span></span></span></li>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">3.</span></span></strong></span><strong><span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">論述小康之治,以對比大同之治</span></span></strong><br />
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<li>
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">政治層面:以天下為私產,以父子相傳,兄終弟及,與傳賢的大同政治正好相反。為了鞏固本身的權位私利,必須「城郭溝池以為固」以防外力入侵;必須以禮義規範,確定君臣名分,以防國內人民叛亂。</span></span></span></li>
<li>
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">社會層面:「各親其親,各子其子」這種私心,必須以禮義加以規範,才能建立起倫理制度,使父子篤,兄弟睦,夫婦和。此外,又尊崇勇力、智謀,把功績歸個人所有。</span></span></span></li>
<li>
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">在經濟層面:則「貨力為己」,因此,也必須借助禮制法規,才不致於互相爭奪。由上可知小康之治的</span></span></span></li>
<li>
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">結果:以「私」為出發點,而以「禮義」為依歸。如果禮義不足以維繫時,即易產生「謀作、兵起」的禍害,因此禮是維繫小康之治的主要力量。</span></span></span></li>
<li>
<span style="color: black"><span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">實例:禹、湯、文、武、成王、周公。他們成功的主要因素,就是「謹於禮」。如不能遵禮而行,有越軌的行為,雖有權勢,亦必受人斥逐,因為人皆知其為禍根罪首。最後以「是謂小康」結束上文。</span></span></span></li>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">分類</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">時間</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">治道</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">政治制度</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">社會制度</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">經濟制度</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">成效</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">其他</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">大同之治</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">五帝時期</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-family: 標楷體"><span style="font-size: medium">以仁為治</span></span></td>
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<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">1.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">君位:天下為公</span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">2.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">諸侯:選賢與能</span><br />
<span style="font-size: medium"><span style="font-family: 標楷體">3.</span></span><span style="font-family: 標楷體">外交:講信修睦</span></td>
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<span style="font-fa
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